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Starting the research process

  • What does the research process start with?
    • A research topic
      • Correct. First we have a topic in mind
    • A research method
      • Incorrect. The method is selected to address the research question
    • A theory
      • Could be. Sometimes the researcher has a theory in mind, and they will look for a question still pending in that theory
    • A practical problem
      • Possibly. However, you would have to go and see if there is a gap in theory explaining this problem .


Research ethics

What ethical principles should you keep in mind when designing research?
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  • Research merit, which mean the research is meant to benefit science and society ;
  • Research integrity, which means that researchers act responsibly, in a thorough and competent manner, meeting their professional obligations, and being truthful.
  • The justice of the research, which means it distributes benefits and burdens fairly;


Research ethics: recruitment

What ethical principles should you keep in mind when recruiting participants for research?
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  • Informed consent, which mean the researcher lets participants know in advance everything that might reasonably be expected to affect their decision ;
  • Voluntary participation, which means that participants are free to refuse or stop their participation at any time.
  • Confidentiality, which means the researcher does not disclose information about the participants without their consent;
  • Anonymity, which means not disclosing individuals’ participation in the study, and removing identifying details from reported data;


Research ethics: Beneficence

  • What does the principle of beneficence consider?
    • The extent of care researchers offer to participants
      • Incorrect. Although this care is important, it is not what beneficence is about.
    • The proven benefits of the research versus potential benefits
      • Incorrect. We often do not have proof of benefits before research has been done, and therefore we cannot evaluate them.
    • The potential harm to participants versus potential harm to society
      • Not really. Of course, potential harm to participants and potential harm to society need to be considered as part of the beneficence principle, but remember considering the benefits too
    • The extent of potential benefits versus potential harm
      • Correct. The benefits of the research must be greater than its potential harm.


Research questions

Where can you find ideas for research question?
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  • Informal observation of behaviours firsthand, or secondhand observations from nonscientific sources, such as newspapers, books, and so on.;
  • Ideas can come from practical problems, and inspire applied research in fields like law, health, education, and sports.
  • Past research often suggests directions for research, typically in the last major section of a research article ;